Introduction to Tetrahedron science

Any Tetrahedron’s project starts from the analysis of an unbalanced physiological situation with the objective to restore the homeostasis of the cells. Since Tetrahedron is focused on the oxidative stress situation the goal is to restore the redox homeostasis by activating our own Antioxidant Defense System.


Adaptative Homeostasis (Davies, 2016) also called as steady state homeostasis is defined as the transient adaptation of the complex physiological equilibrium in response either to exposure to or removal of sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events.


Adaptative Redox Equilibrium corresponds to the adaptative homeostasis relative to the redox conditions of the cells. The adaptative redox homeostasis (Ursini, 2016) is supported by the Antioxidant Defense System of the cells. Maintaining a precise redox balance status is as important as the physiological acid­-base buffer system of the body for the optimal operation of homeostatic cellular activities. Changes in the redox balance are known to have a great impact on the cellular signaling pathways and transcriptional activities since most of their reactions and activation depend on reduction/oxidation processes.

Oxidative Stress

Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) are metabolites coming from the oxygen metabolism. At physiological level ROS are signaling molecules allowing the adjustment of the cells to the modifications of their environment. Their production is under the control of the Antioxidant Defense System. Above a certain threshold the Antioxidant Defense System is overwhelmed by ROS leading to damage the cellular components of the cells (lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) and likely to the cell death.  Such an situation is called oxidative stress.

A modern definition of Oxidative stress is as the fail in the regulation of redox signaling due either to the over-production of ROS and the result of mitochondrial malfunction, or exhaustion of regulatory mechanisms.


Micronutrients include more than 40 essential dietary ingredients such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids and fatty acids. Amongst them natural antioxidant micronutrients constitute the Antioxidant Defense System of the cells. Some of them are produced inside our cells – such as glutathione or antioxidant enzymes. Others cannot be produced by man and must be provided by the diet – such as Vitamin C or Vitamin E.

Low-grade inflammation and Inflammaging

Low-grade inflammation (also called low-level inflammation) (LGI) is a weak chronic increase of the inflammation level which is subnormal and asymptomatic then non pathological.

At Tetrahedron we think that in the path leading to the disease the LGI step is the intermediate stage between the physiological  and the pathological state.

Aging is typically associated with an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies through diet. There is a unifying rationale for a causal link between chronic modest deficiency of a micronutrient and age-related low-grade inflammation also called Inflammaging.

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Antioxidant or Redox modulation

L-ergothioneine: from its physiological role to it physiological effect