Introduction to Tetrahedron science

Any Tetrahedron’s project starts from the analysis of an unbalanced physiological situation with the objective to restore the homeostasis of the cells. Since Tetrahedron is focused on the oxidative stress situation the goal is to restore the redox homeostasis.


Adaptative Homeostasis (Davies, 2016) also called as steady state homeostasis is defined as the transient adaptation of the complex physiological equilibrium in response either to exposure to or removal of sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events.


Adaptative Redox Equilibrium corresponds to the adaptative homeostasis relative to the redox conditions of the cells. The adaptative redox homeostasis (Ursini, 2016) is based on the Antioxidant Defense System of the cells. Maintaining a precise redox balance status is as important as the physiological acid­base buffer system of the body for the optimal operation of homeostatic cellular activities. Changes in the redox balance are known to have a great impact on the cellular signaling pathways and transcriptional activities since most of their reactions and activation depend on reduction/oxidation processes. A modern definition of Oxidative stress is as the fail in the regulation of redox signaling due either to overproduction of ROS and the result of mitochondrial malfunction, or exhaustion of regulatory mechanisms.


Micronutrients include more than 40 essential dietary ingredients such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids and fatty acids. Amongst them natural antioxidant micronutrients constitute the Antioxidant Defense System of the cells. Some of them are produced inside our cells – such as glutathione or antioxidant enzymes. Others cannot be produced by man and must be provided by the diet – such as Vitamin C or Vitamin E.

Low-grade inflammation

Aging is typically associated with an increased risk of low vitamin consumption through diet. There is a unifying rationale for a causal link between chronic modest deficiency of a micronutrient and age-related low-grade inflammation.

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Antioxidant or Redox modulation

L-ergothioneine: from its physiological role to it physiological effect